Tobacco Harm Reduction

ABF offers the largest portfolio of fully validated assays for biomarkers of exposure to tobacco, cigarettes and new nicotine delivery products such as e-cigarettes or heated tobacco products. Our ISO 17025 accredited methods can be run in compliance with GLP and GCP within (pre-)clinical studies.
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Biomarker
Exposure to
Matrix
Analytical Technique
Reference
1,3-Butadiene Tobacco Smoke ETS GC-MS
1-Aminonaphthalene (1-AN) 1-Aminonaphthalene Urine GC-MS
1-Hydroxyphenanthrene (1-OH-Phe) Phenanthrene Urine LC-MS/MS
1-Hydroxypyrene (1-OH-Pyr) Pyrene Urine LC-MS/MS
1-Naphthol (1-Hydroxynaphthalene, 1-OH-Nap) Naphthalene Urine LC-MS/MS
11-dehydro-TXB2 Inflammation Urine LC-MS/MS
12(S)-HETE Inflammation Urine LC-MS/MS
2,3-dinor-8-iso-PGF2α Oxidative Stress Urine LC-MS/MS
2,3-dinor-TXB2 Inflammation Urine LC-MS/MS
2-(Carboxyl-1-methylethyl)mercapturic acid (CMEMA) Crotonaldehyde Urine LC-MS/MS
2-Aminonaphthalene (2-AN) 2-Aminonaphthalene Urine, ETS GC-MS
2-Hydroxy-1-phenylethylmercapturic acid (PHEMA 1) Styrene Urine LC-MS/MS
2-Hydroxy-2-phenylethylmercapturic acid (PHEMA 2) Styrene Urine LC-MS/MS
2-Hydroxyethylmercapturic acid (HEMA) Ethylene oxide, Alkylating agents Urine LC-MS/MS
2-Hydroxyfluorene (2-OH-Flu) Fluorene Urine LC-MS/MS
2-Hydroxyphenanthrene (2-OH-Phe) Phenanthrene Urine LC-MS/MS
2-Hydroxypropylmercapturic acid (2-HPMA) Propylene oxide Urine LC-MS/MS
2-Naphthol (2-Hydroxynaphthalene, 2-OH-Nap) Naphthalene Urine LC-MS/MS
20-Carboxy-Leukotriene B4 Inflammation Urine LC-MS/MS
20-Hydroxy-Leukotriene B4 Inflammation Urine LC-MS/MS
3-Aminobiphenyl (3-ABP) 3-Aminobiphenyl Urine GC-MS
3-Ethenylpyridine Tobacco Smoke Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) GC-MS
3-Hydroxy-1-methylpropylmercapturic acid (HMPMA) Crotonaldehyde Urine LC-MS/MS
3-Hydroxyphenanthrene (3-OH-Phe) Phenanthrene Urine LC-MS/MS
3-Hydroxypropylmercapturic acid (3-HPMA) Acrolein Urine LC-MS/MS
3-Nitrotyrosine Nitrosative stress Plasma LC-MS/MS
3-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene (3-OH-BaP) Benzo[a]pyrene Urine LC-MS/MS
4-Aminobiphenyl (4-ABP) 4-Aminobiphenyl Urine, ETS GC-MS
4-Hydroxy-4-(3-pyridyl)butanoic acid (HyPyBut) Nicotine Urine LC-MS/MS
4-Hydroxyphenanthrene (4-OH-Phe) Phenanthrene Urine LC-MS/MS
8-Hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) Oxidative stress Urine LC-MS/MS
8-iso-PGF2α Oxidative Stress Urine LC-MS/MS
9-Hydroxyphenanthrene (9-OH-Phe) Phenanthrene Urine LC-MS/MS
Acetaldehyde (FA) Tobacco Smoke, E-Vapor Aerosol ETS, e-liquids, aerosol LC-MS/MS
Acetone Tobacco Smoke, E-Vapor Aerosol ETS, e-liquids, aerosol LC-MS/MS
Acrolein (ACR) Tobacco Smoke, E-Vapor Aerosol ETS, e-liquids, aerosol LC-MS/MS
Acrylamidemercapturic acid (AAMA) Acrylamide Urine LC-MS/MS
Anabasine (AB) Anabasine Plasma, Urine LC-MS/MS
Anatabine (AT) Anatabine Plasma, Urine LC-MS/MS
Benzene Tobacco Smoke ETS GC-MS
Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) PAH ETS GC-MS
Citronellol Flavor Urine HS-SPME-GC-MS
Cotinine Nicotine Urine, Plasma, Serum, Saliva LC-MS/MS
Cotinine-N-oxide (CNO) Nicotine Urine LC-MS/MS
Cotinine-glucuronide Nicotine Urine LC-MS/MS
Creatinine Normalization of urinary biomarker concentrations Urine Photometry
Cyanoethylmercapturic acid (CEMA) Acrylonitrile Urine LC-MS/MS
DHN-MA Oxidative stress, Lipid peroxidation Urine LC-MS/MS
Dihydroxybutenylmercapturic acid (DHBMA) 1,3-Butadiene Urine LC-MS/MS
Dihydroxypropylmercapturic acid (DHPMA) Glycidol Urine LC-MS/MS
Eugenol Flavor Urine HS-SPME-GC-MS
F-PM Tobacco Smoke Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Fluorescence
Fromaldehyde (FA) Tobacco Smoke, E-Vapor, Aerosol ETS, e-liquids, aerosol LC-MS/MS
Glycerol Glycerol Urine, Plasma, Serum, Saliva, PBS, ETS, Aerosol, e-liquids LC-MS/MS
Glycidamidemercapturic acid (GAMA) Acrylamide Urine LC-MS/MS
HNA-Lactone-MA Oxidative stress, Lipid peroxidation Urine LC-MS/MS
HNA-MA Oxidative stress, Lipid peroxidation Urine LC-MS/MS
HNE-MA Oxidative stress, Lipid peroxidation Urine LC-MS/MS
Homocysteine Amino acid metabolism Plasma LC-MS/MS
Isoprenemercapturic acid (IPMA-3) Isoprene Urine LC-MS/MS
L-Carvone Flavor Urine HS-SPME-GC-MS
Leukotriene E4 Inflammation Urine LC-MS/MS
Linalool Flavor Urine HS-SPME-GC-MS
MDA Oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation Plasma, Exhaled Breath GC-MS
Menthol Flavor Urine HS-SPME-GC-MS
Methacrolein Tobacco Smoke, E-Vapor Aerosol ETS, e-liquids, aerosol LC-MS/MS
Monohydroxybutenylmercapturic acid 1 (1-MHBMA) 1,3-Butadiene Urine LC-MS/MS
Monohydroxybutenylmercapturic acid 2 (2-MHBMA) 1,3-Butadiene Urine LC-MS/MS
N-Nitrosoanabasine (NAB) NAB Urine, ETS, Aerosol LC-MS/MS, GC-MS
N-Nitrosoanatabine (NAT) NAT Urine, ETS, Aerosol LC-MS/MS, GC-MS
N-Nitrosonornicotine (NNN) NNN Urine, Plasma, Saliva, ETS, Aerosol LC-MS/MS, GC-MS
NNAL NNK (Nicotine-derived nitrosamine ketone) Urine LC-MS/MS
NNK Tobacco Smoke, Aerosol ETS, Aerosol LC-MS/MS
Nicotine (Nic) Nicotine Urine, Plasma, Serum, Saliva, PBS, ETS, e-liquids, aerosol LC-MS/MS, GC-MS
Nicotine-N-oxide (NNO) Nicotine Urine LC-MS/MS
Nicotine-glucuronide (Nic-gluc) Nicotine Urine LC-MS/MS
Norcotinine Nicotine Urine LC-MS/MS
Nornicotine Nicotine Urine LC-MS/MS
PGF2α Oxidative Stress Urine LC-MS/MS
Particulate matter (PM) Tobacco Smoke Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Light scattering or gravimetry
Phenantrene (Phe) PAH ETS GC-MS
Propionaldehyde (PA) Tobacco Smoke, E-Vapor Aerosol ETS, e-liquids, aerosol LC-MS/MS
Propylene glycol (PG) Propylene glycol Urine, Plasma, Serum, Saliva, PBS, Aerosol, ETS, e-liquids LC-MS/MS
Prostaglandin D Oxidative Stress Urine LC-MS/MS
Prostaglandin E Oxidative Stress Urine LC-MS/MS
Pyrene (Pyr) PAH ETS GC-MS
S-Benzylmercapturic acid (SBMA) Toluene Urine LC-MS/MS
S-Phenylmercapturic acid (SPMA) Benzene Urine LC-MS/MS
Solanesol Tobacco Smoke Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) LC-MS
Toluene Tobacco Smoke ETS GC-MS
Trehalose Trehalose PBS LC-MS/MS
UV-PM Tobacco Smoke Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Photometry
Xylene Tobacco Smoke ETS GC-MS
ortho-Toluidine ortho-Toluidine Urine, ETS GC-MS
para-Menthane-3,8-diol Menthol Plasma, Serum LC-MS/MS
trans,trans-muconic acid (tt-MA) Benzene Urine GC-MS
trans-3'-Hydroxycotinine (3-OH-Cot) Nicotine Urine, Plasma, Serum, Saliva LC-MS/MS
trans-3'-Hydroxycotinine-glucuronide (3-OH-Cot-gluc) Nicotine Urine LC-MS/MS

Pioneers in biomarker research

Almost all of the biomarker methods developed at ABF were published in peer-reviewed journals, a fact that supports the validity, transparency and scientific evidence of the bioanalysis especially of importance for regulatory submissions